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This article is the first part of a series of articles on computer hardware parts, which are collected in three parts. In this part, “power”, “memory”, “graphics card” and “hard disk” are introduced and explained. also

This article is the first part of a series of articles on computer hardware parts, which are collected in three parts. In this part, “power”, “memory”, “graphics card” and “hard disk” are introduced and explained. You can also get more information on this topic in the article that introduces the main components of a computer.

power supply:

A power supply is an electrical device that is responsible for supplying and regulating the electric current in a computer. This part is located in a large, independent box in the computer case and causes most computer malfunctions.

The work of the power supply is to convert alternating voltage (alternating current, alternating current) into direct voltage (DC, direct current).

Types of power supplies

The power supply has different dimensions and shapes, which must match and match the box and motherboard installed inside the computer case. Therefore, these three pieces must be of the same type. The types of these components are:

  • 1-XT
  • 2- On a reclining desk or table top
  • 3- AT tower or standing
  • 4- Baby AT
  • 5- Narrow rectifier, portable
  • 6-ATX

When the XT computer was launched by IBM, its power supply was similar to that of the previous ones, while its output power was twice that of the previous ones. Then, when IBM made the AT computer, it used a larger power supply for it, which had different shapes. This type of power supply was so popular that it is still used in systems today.

The turret or standing type of AT systems is similar to the cantilevered AT systems. The power supply and motherboard specifications for desktop systems are the same as the power supply and motherboard specifications for tower systems. The only difference is the power switches are in different places. There is another type of AT that is smaller than the stationary type and its power source is also small, and it is called Baby AT. The power supply for transfer boxes is also different from other power supplies in terms of appearance. In these types of boxes, the motherboards do not have specific standards, but their power supply has specific standards and can be replaced.

An ATX power supply is the same as a laptop power supply, so the two are interchangeable. The ATX power supply type has the following characteristics and advantages:

1- There are (a) power on signals and (b) standby (soft power) 5 volt signals in this type of power supply.

2- The heat sink can be removed from the processor with this type.

3- Motherboards of this type do not contain parts called regulators to produce 3.3V because the power supply interface of the motherboard itself has a voltage of 3.3V.

4- Ventilation is done towards the inside of the power source to cool the motherboard. This action cools the internal parts and cleans the surface of the internal parts.

5- The power supply plug of the motherboard is 20-pin, and it cannot be connected in reverse.

Power supply with different voltage with different powers, such as:

1- Voltage + 5V: All motherboards, circuits, and computer peripherals use this type of voltage, and the color of their wires is red.

2- Voltage 12 + V: The hard drive and similar devices use this voltage, which is no longer used by newer motherboards. Serial port circuits also use this voltage. Its wire is usually yellow, sometimes red.

3- Voltages 5 and 12 volts: These two voltages were present in old computers, but are now installed in power supplies. These two currents have a current of less than one ampere.

4- 3.3V+ voltage: Newer processors use 3.3V or less, while older processors use 5+ voltage. In new processors, the required voltage is generated by the processor directly, thus saving energy and reducing heat.

5- Correct voltage signals (desired power): After the system is turned on, the power supply needs some time to reach the useful and required voltage level, bad things will happen if the system starts working and the power supply starts working after that. it will happen

In order not to turn on the computer before the power supply is ready, a signal called (Power good) is sent to the motherboard to indicate the correct voltage or power required.

Until the motherboard arrives it won’t do anything, and if there is a problem with the electricity and a spark results, the power supply will cut off that signal and the motherboard won’t work.

6- The signal is on: In the new power supply, a program-controlled function has been defined. This signal, called Power On, controls the motherboard and turns on the power supply.

7- 5V + 5V standby stop signal: This voltage is present when the computer is turned off, this signal turns on in the form of a program when the computer is turned off.

power supply components

1- Transformer: which changes the voltage.

2- Rectifier: converts alternating current into direct current.

3- Filter or repeater: catches waves.

The power supply runs some tests before turning on the computer, and then sends a signal to the motherboard if the system is correct. This mode is preserved and if it is lost for any reason, the device is reset.

The power supply is designed in two ways: linear and keyless, the linear type has larger transformers, and the key type is better than the linear type in terms of size, weight and power. Good power supplies contain a resistor that prevents them from getting damaged.

RAM memory (read and write)

As you know, the temporary data of the computer is completely deleted when the system is turned off. This way, if you give a program or data to the computer and the power to the computer goes out for any reason, you have to re-enter the program or data after turning the computer back on. The processor receives the information it needs from the RAM, performs the necessary operations, and then stores the results in the RAM.

Therefore, this type of memory can be read and written. When you turn on the computer, the main memory is checked and tested. The tested volume value is displayed on the screen.

RAM is divided into two types: DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).

DRAM uses capacitors to store its information. The capacitor is equal to one when charged and zero when discharged. This memory must work with electricity continuously so as not to lose positive and negative charges. In this case, the process of rewriting and updating information takes place at regular intervals.

There are two types of rewrite circuits: 10-bit, which is called 1k rewrite, and 11-bit, which is called 2k rewrite.

ROM memory

This type of memory does not lose its data when the computer is turned off. A number of memory such as ROM and smart flash card memory are included in this kit.

memory speed

The speed of RAM chips is measured in the time it takes to access one bit of information. This unit is measured in nanoseconds. Note that RAM speed is measured in clock speed. The speed of memory chips is usually between 50 and 120 ns. The lower the number expressed for speed, the faster the memory. These types of memories are divided into the following groups in terms of hardware:

Memory types

SRAM is static random access memory that was originally used for cache memory. This memory uses multiple transistors for each of its memory cells. This type of memory is not able to read information continuously like DRAM. Each memory cell will save its data as long as its power supply is active. The speed of this type of memory is very high.

How much memory is required?

The amount of memory required depends on different applications. To use special software, design software, 3D animation, entertainment software, and Internet access, each requires a certain amount of memory.

In fact, the increase in memory is related to the type of computer use. For example, Windows 95 or 98 requires at least 32MB of memory. Windows 2000 requires at least 64MB, Linux at least 4MB, Apple OS at least 16MB, and Windows XP at least 64MB of memory.

Photographers card

In order to be able to see the images related to data and information on the computer screen, a connection must be established between the motherboard and the monitor, which is why the graphics card is placed in one of the expansion slots of the motherboard or the cable is connected to the motherboard and controls the display of information on the screen.

The graphics card has a special place in the computer. In most computers, the graphics card converts digital information into analog information for display by the monitor. In fact, the points that make up the image on the screen are called pixels. Each pixel represents a colour. In Macintosh displays, each pixel has two colors (black and white). On some modern displays, each pixel contains 256 colors. On most screens, pixels are in full color (true color) and have 16.8 million different modes.

A graphics card is a printed circuit board with a dedicated processor and memory. The processor calculates the required graphics.

Graphics cards are known by the following names: video card, graphics controller, video, graphics adapter, video, graphics, or video accelerator.

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